33.1. A combination (autonyms excepted) is not validly published unless the author definitely associates the final epithet with the name of the genus or species, or with its abbreviation.
Ex. 1. Combinations validly published: In Linnaeus's Species plantarum the placing of the epithet in the margin opposite the name of the genus clearly associates the epithet with the name of the genus. The same result is attained in Miller's
Gardeners dictionary, ed. 8, by the inclusion of the epithet in parentheses immediately after the name of the genus, in Steudel's
Nomenclator botanicus by the arrangement of the epithets in a list headed by the name of the genus, and in general by any typographical device which associates an epithet with a particular generic or specific name.
Ex. 2. Combinations not validly published: Rafinesque's statement under
Blephilia that "Le type de ce genre est la Monarda ciliata Linn." (in J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 89: 98. 1819) does not constitute valid publication of the combination
B. ciliata, since Rafinesque did not definitely associate the epithet ciliata
with the generic name Blephilia. Similarly, the combination Eulophus peucedanoides is not to be attributed to Bentham & Hooker (Gen. Pl. 1: 885. 1867) on the basis of their listing of "Cnidium peucedanoides, H. B. et K." under
33.2. If, for a presumed new combination, no reference to a basionym is given but the epithet of a previously and validly published name that applies to the same taxon is adopted, the new combination is validly published as such if, and only if, it would otherwise be validly published as the name of a new taxon (see also Art. 33.6(d)).
Ex. 3. Scaevola taccada was validly published by Roxburgh (1814) by reference to an illustration in Rheede (Hort. Malab. 4: t. 59. 1683) that appears to be its sole basis. As the name applies to the species previously described as
Lobelia taccada Gaertn. (1788), it is treated as a new combination, S. taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb., not as the name of a new species, even though Gaertner is not referred to in Roxburgh's protologue.
33.3. A new combination, or an avowed substitute (replacement name, nomen novum), published on or after 1 January 1953 based on a previously and validly published name is not validly published unless its basionym (name-bringing or epithet-bringing synonym) or the replaced synonym (when a new name is proposed) is clearly indicated and a full and direct reference given to its author and place of valid publication, with page or plate reference and date (but see Art. 33.2, 33.4, and 33.6).
Ex. 4. In transferring Ectocarpus mucronatus D. A. Saunders to
Giffordia, Kjeldsen & Phinney (in Madroño 22: 90. 27 Apr 1973) cited the basionym and its author but without reference to its place of valid publication. They later (in Madroño 22: 154. 2 Jul 1973) validated the binomial
G. mucronata (D. A. Saunders) Kjeldsen & Phinney by giving a full and direct reference to the place of valid publication of the basionym.
Note 1. For the purpose of this Code, a page reference (for publications with a consecutive pagination) is a reference to the page or pages on which the basionym was validly published or on which the protologue is printed, but not to the pagination of the whole publication unless it is coextensive with that of the protologue.
Ex. 5. When proposing "Cylindrocladium infestans", Peerally (in Mycotaxon 40: 337. 1991) cited the basionym as
"Cylindrocladiella infestans Boesw., Can. J. Bot. 60: 2288-2294. 1982". As this refers to the pagination of Boeswinkel's entire paper, not of the protologue of the intended basionym alone, the combination was not validly published by Peerally.
33.4. Errors in the citation of the basionym or replaced synonym, including incorrect author citation
(Art. 46), but not omissions (Art. 33.3; but see Art. 33.2), do not invalidate publication of a new combination or nomen novum.
Ex. 6. Aronia arbutifolia var. nigra (Willd.) F. Seym. (Fl. New England: 308. 1969) was published as a new combination "Based on
Mespilus arbutifolia L. var. nigra Willd., in Sp. Pl. 2: 1013. 1800." Willdenow treated these plants in the genus
Pyrus, not Mespilus, and publication was in 1799, not 1800; these errors are treated as bibliographic errors of citation and do not invalidate the publication of the new combination.
33.5. Mere reference to the Index kewensis, the Index of fungi, or any work other than that in which the name was validly published does not constitute a full and direct reference to the original publication of a name (but see Art. 33.6).
Ex. 7. Ciferri (in Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 7: 86-89. 1954), in proposing 142 new combinations in
Meliola, omitted references to places of publication of basionyms, stating that they could be found in Petrak's lists or in the
Index of fungi; none of these combinations was validly published. Similarly, Grummann (Cat. Lich. Germ.: 18. 1963) introduced a new combination in the form
Lecanora campestris f. "pseudistera (Nyl.) Grumm. c.n. - L. p. Nyl., Z 5: 521", in which "Z 5" referred to Zahlbruckner (Cat. Lich. Univ. 5: 521. 1928), who gave the full citation of the basionym,
Lecanora pseudistera Nyl.; Grummann's combination was not validly published.
Note 2. The publication of a name for a taxon previously known under a misapplied name must be valid under
Art. 32, 33,
34, 35, 36,
37, 38, 39,
40, 41, 42,
43, 44, 45
This procedure is not the same as publishing an avowed substitute (replacement name, nomen novum) for a validly published but illegitimate name
(Art. 58.1), the type of which is necessarily the same as that of the name which it replaced
Ex. 8. Sadleria hillebrandii Rob. (1913) was introduced as a "nom. nov." for "Sadleria pallida Hilleb. Fl. Haw. Is. 582. 1888. Not Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 75. 1832." Since the requirements of Art. 32-45 were satisfied (for valid publication, prior to 1935, simple reference to a previous description or diagnosis in any language was sufficient), the name is validly published. It is, however, to be considered the name of a new species, validated by Hillebrand's description of the taxon to which he misapplied the name
S. pallida Hook. & Arn., and not a nomen novum as stated by Robinson; hence,
Art. 7.3 does not apply.
Ex. 9. Juncus bufonius "var. occidentalis" (Hermann in U.S. Forest Serv., Techn. Rep. RM-18: 14. 1975) was published as a "nom. et stat. nov." for
J. sphaerocarpus "auct. Am., non Nees". Since there is no Latin diagnosis, designation of type, or reference to any previous publication providing these requirements, the name is not validly published.
33.6. In any of the following cases, reference to a work other than that in which the basionym or replaced synonym was validly published is treated as an error to be corrected, not affecting the valid publication of a new combination or nomen novum, even if published on or after 1 January 1953:
(a) when the name cited as basionym or replaced synonym was validly published earlier than in the cited publication, but in that cited publication, in which all conditions for valid publication are again fulfilled, there is no reference to the actual place of valid publication;
(b) when the failure to cite the place of valid publication of the basionym or replaced synonym is explained by the later nomenclatural starting point for the group concerned, and in particular by the backward shift of the starting date for some fungi;
(c) when an intended new combination would otherwise be validly published as a (legitimate or illegitimate) nomen novum; or
(d) when an intended new combination or nomen novum would otherwise be the validly published name of a new taxon (see also Art. 33.2).
Ex. 10. The combination Trichipteris kalbreyeri was proposed by Tryon (1970) with a full and direct reference to "Alsophila Kalbreyeri C. Chr. Ind. Fil. 44. 1905". This, however, is not the place of valid publication of the intended basionym, which had previously been published, with the same type, by Baker (1891; see
Art. 6 Ex. 1). As Christensen provided no reference to Baker's earlier validation, Tryon's error of citation does not affect the valid publication of his new combination, which is to be cited as
T. kalbreyeri (Baker) R. M. Tryon.
Ex. 11. The intended new combination "Machaerina iridifolia" was proposed by Koyama (in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 69: 64. 1956) with a full and direct reference to "Cladium iridifolium Baker, Flor. Maurit. 424 (1877)". However,
C. iridifolium had been proposed by Baker as a new combination based on Scirpus iridifolius Bory (1804). As Baker provided an explicit reference to Bory, Art. 33.6(a) does not apply and the combination under
Machaerina was not validly published by Koyama.
Ex. 12. The combination Lasiobelonium corticale was proposed by Raitviir (1980) with a full and direct reference to
Peziza corticalis in Fries (Syst. Mycol. 2: 96. 1822). This, however, is not the place of valid publication of the basionym, which, under the
Code operating in 1980, was in Mérat (Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2, 1: 22. 1821), and under the current
Code is in Persoon (Observ. Mycol. 1: 28. 1796). Raitviir's error of citation, being partly explained by the backward shift of the starting date for ascomycetes and partly by the absence of a reference to Mérat in Fries's work, does not invalidate the publication of the new combination, which is to be cited as
L. corticale (Pers. : Fr.) Raitv.
33.7. A name given to a taxon of which the rank is at the same time, contrary to
Art. 5, denoted by a misplaced term is not validly published. Such misplacements include forms divided into varieties, species containing genera, and genera containing families or tribes.
Ex. 13. "Sectio Orontiaceae" was not validly published by Brown (Prodr.: 337. 1810) since he misapplied the term "sectio" to a rank higher than genus.
Ex. 14. "Tribus Involuta" and "tribus Brevipedunculata" (Huth in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 365, 368. 1895) are not validly published names, since Huth misapplied the term "tribus" to a rank lower than section, within the genus
33.8. An exception to Art. 33.7 is made for names of the subdivisions of genera termed tribes (tribus) in Fries's
Systema mycologicum, which are treated as validly published names of subdivisions of genera.
Ex. 15. Agaricus "tribus" Pholiota Fr. (Syst. Mycol. 1: 240. 1821), sanctioned in the same work, is the validly published basionym of the generic name
Pholiota (Fr. : Fr.) P. Kumm. (1871) (see Art. 32 Ex.
33A.1. The full and direct reference to the place of publication of the basionym or replaced synonym should immediately follow a proposed new combination or nomen novum. It should not be provided by mere cross-reference to a bibliography at the end of the publication or to other parts of the same publication, e.g. by use of the abbreviations "loc. cit." or "op. cit."
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